35岁以后的程序员,正处于怎样一种状态?

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随着互联网的高速发展变革,大龄恐惧症越来越多地在技术圈被人讨论。很多程序员在工作5-10年以后,都会开始思考5年、10年甚至更久以后的自己,会是怎样一种生活工作状态,以及是否会被时代抛弃。
 
特别是全民创业的这几年,大到BAT,小到创业公司,喜欢年轻员工成了许多企业招人时的隐形规定之一。比如华为就明确规定员工45岁以后必须退休。阿里这几年也在追求团队年轻化,35岁以上的程序员申请P8以下的职位成功率很低。在100offer此次采访的企业中,一家互联网金融公司表示平时在招聘技术人才时,普通开发人员的年龄不得超过30岁,架构师年龄不得超过35岁。而许多高速发展的创业公司,更是年轻人的天下,从CEO到CTO,平均年龄不超过30岁的情况比比皆是。
现在的互联网世界,似乎成了年轻人的天下。那么,那些工作10年以上,年过35岁的程序员都去哪儿了呢?他们现在的生活和工作状态怎样?带着这一疑问,100offer采访了2位北京地区资历背景相当,且年近40岁的优秀程序员,他们一个焦虑迷茫,一个自信激情,也许这两种截然不同的心理状态,反映了中国目前大部分大龄码农的生存现状,同时对那些即将迈入「大龄」阶段的程序员来说,也有一定借鉴作用。
黄明国:38岁,从BAT到创业公司,想在40岁之前再拼一把
今年38岁的黄明国,2004年博士毕业于北京某研究型院校,目前在北京定居,有车有房,有妻有子。前10年的职业生涯一路顺畅,在身边大多数同学毕业后直接进入高校当老师的情况下,志不在此的黄明国选择了加入了当时正处于萌芽阶段的互联网行业,此后一做就是10年。
最开始他在一家当时并不知名,现在已成为北京一线的互联网公司做搜索相关的技术工作,两年后由于没有更大的技术施展空间,便离职去了某BAT在北京的分部,此后一做就是8年。从普通开发人员到小组Leader再到管理者,8年时间内黄明国晋升了4级。虽然他当时做的还是搜索算法那一套,但是由于公司产品在市场上有更强大的竞争对手,用户规模也一直处于不上不下的尴尬阶段难以突破,工作基本已经没什么挑战。
「现在的很多年轻人都不愿意来我们公司,觉得像BAT里的养老院。他们更想有一个平台,能够让他们接触一个产品或项目从0到1的过程,而不是在前人的代码基础上做重复工作。」黄明国说,技术上的老旧,可能是许多大公司的通病,也是阻碍更多年轻人加入的原因。然而技术世界的发展日新月异,即使是黄明国这种即将奔四的程序员,新技术的层出不穷依然会给他们带来危机感和吸引力。所以今年6月,他选择离开工作了8年BAT,来外面的世界看看。用他自己的话来说就是:「想在40岁之前,再拼一把。」
然而面试的过程并不顺利,学历和工作背景都异常优秀的黄明国在100offer上只收到了5封面试邀请,接受了2家后,其中一家公司在一轮面试后就以他的技术太老旧为由拒绝了他,这给一直以来对自己的技术实力比较自信的他带来了一定打击。但最终他还是成功入职了另一家创业公司,做数据挖掘和机器学习相关的工作,带领10人左右的团队,向一个比自己年龄小的上级汇报。工作节奏从在BAT的每天七八点下班,变成了晚上10点以后下班,有时周末也会在家加班。
上周,黄明国从繁忙之中抽空见了我们,今年38岁的他看上去有些疲惫,交谈过程中也能感觉出精神状态的紧绷。「刚进来几个月,每天工作都挺充实的。」他笑着说,「有一些在之前工作中没接触过的语言和技术,比如Scala和机器学习,现在也都在学习。」
「除这些以外呢?您还有其他工作要处理吗?」我问。
「有的。现在的工作主要是四部分:写代码、管理团队、做数据挖掘相关的工作、做机器学习方面的研究。」
「听上去做得有点杂,您有没有向上级提过把主要精力放在某一块工作上,比如管理?」
黄明国犹豫了片刻后说:「其实我们现在做的事情,很多都处于摸索阶段,大家都没用足够丰富的经验,难免会踩坑,这些坑延缓了项目的进度,也是导致我们加班的因素之一。但好在遇到问题大家愿意一起讨论、寻找解决方案,现阶段虽然累,但是也成长很多。」
当「成长」这个词从一位年近40岁,有着近10年工作经验的程序员口中冒出来时,竟让人一时间有些恍惚。虽然工作背景光鲜亮丽,但无疑黄明国是有危机感的,他深知技术是一个需要持续学习的工作,无论到了哪个年龄阶段都需要不断摄入新知识,否则就会被后起之秀追赶上。然而,虽有心追赶时代的步伐,在BAT待了太长时间的黄明国初次来到互联网公司「年轻人的世界」里时,还是在忙碌的工作中感受到了焦虑。
当问及未来几年的职业规划时,黄明国说他现在既不需要再去大公司镀金,毕竟他已经在BAT里待太久了,对大公司的那一套办事风格已非常熟悉。也从未想过创业或者去创业公司当CTO,他觉得风险太大,随着家里孩子渐渐长大,看得出他想给家庭多一些陪伴。在没有得到确切的答案前,他反问我:「你觉得像我这种情况,以后的职业发展路该怎么走比较合适?」
这个问题想必很多35岁以后的程序员也经常问自己。「随着年龄越来越大,我该何去何从?」
如果按照世界职业规划发展史上里程碑式的人物舒伯对人的生命阶段的定位,25岁-44岁职业上的发展课题应该包含:
稳定于一项工作
确立自己将来的保障
发现适当的晋升路线
如果我们把25岁到44对再做一次细分的话,31岁到44岁就应该处于安定期,这个阶段可晋升的上升空间已非常有限,所以找准自己的定位并在这条路线上获得保障,再去不断补充新知识,增加自己在某一专业领域的权威性很重要。
其实大多数程序员的晋升路径并不复杂,无非以下几种:
技术型:初级工程师->中级工程师->高级工程师->架构师(技术专家)->技术总监->CTO
管理型:工程师->项目组长->项目经理->项目总监->技术总监->CTO
交叉型:初级工程师->中级工程师->项目经理->技术总监->CTO(此路线技术和管理交叉进行,每个阶段做的事情不固定)
转行型:初级工程师->转行产品、设计、销售、运营等
当然在现实生活中,很多人的成长路径没有这么一帆风顺。大多数程序员在工作3-5年,知识和技术吸收积累到一定阶段后,会开始考虑继续做技术还是转行,这取决于一个人在技术上的天赋有多高。
如果选择继续从事技术,就要考虑是在技术上专精,还是走上管理岗位。虽然很多程序员技术水平达到一定阶段后都会被公司推上管理岗,但是更加痴迷专注于技术的人,在做了一段时间管理后还是会选择回归纯技术领域,成为一名技术专家或者架构师,比如前端界的大神Winter。
黄明国之所以会迷茫,是因为他现在正处于从资深工程师迈向管理岗位这一重要阶段。很多大龄程序员也正是在这一阶段迷失了方向:自己究竟喜欢技术还是擅长管理?只要这个问题没想清楚,就会像黄明国这样,长期陷入一种一人多职的状态,在高速进展的繁忙工作中理不清头绪,看不清未来。

With the rapid development of the Internet, more and more fear of aging in the circle of technology has been discussed. Many programmers in the work of 5-10 years later, will begin to think about 5 years, even more than 10 years later, their own, how will be a life and work status, and whether it will be abandoned by the times.
Especially in the past few years of entrepreneurship, big to BAT, small to start-up companies, like young employees become one of the many companies to recruit one of the hidden rules. For example, HUAWEI clearly stipulates that employees must retire after the age of 45. Ali in recent years, the pursuit of a younger team, 35 years of age programmers to apply for positions below P8 success rate is very low. In the 100offer interview with the company, an internet financial company said the usual recruitment of technical personnel, the age of ordinary developers should not exceed 30 years old, the architect shall not exceed the age of 35. And many of the rapid development of start-up companies, but also the world of young people, from CEO to CTO, the average age of not more than 30 years of age abound.
Now the Internet world, seems to be the world of young people. So, those who work for more than 10 years, over the age of 35 programmers have gone? How are they living and working now? With this question, 100offer interviewed 2 Beijing area background, good programmers and nearly 40 years old, one of their anxiety confusion, a confident passion, maybe these two different mental state, reflects the current living situation of most older code Chinese, and to those who are about to enter the "the older" stage of the programmers, it can be used as reference.
Huang Mingguo: 38 years old, from BAT to start a company, want to fight again before the age of 40
This year 38 year old Huang Mingguo, in 2004, graduated from a doctoral research institute in Beijing, currently settled in Beijing, a car with a house, a wife has a son. The first 10 years of occupation career smoothly, around most of the students after graduation directly into the University as a teacher of the case, do not claim Huang Mingguo chose to join the then budding Internet industry, then do that for 10 years.
Initially he was a not well-known, Beijing has now become the first-line Internet Co do search technology related work, after two years because there is no more technology space, will leave to the branch in Beijing of a BAT, then do that for 8 years. From the general developers to group Leader to managers, 8 years of promotion 4 Huang mingguo. Although he was still search for that one, but because the company's products are more powerful competitors in the market, the user scale has also been in the awkward stage suspended in midair is difficult to break the basic work, have no what challenges.
"A lot of young people don't want to come to our company right now, like a nursing home in BAT. They want to have a platform that allows them to contact a product or project from 0 to 1 of the process, rather than on the basis of previous code to do repetitive work. Huang Mingguo said that the technology of the old, may be a common problem for many large companies, but also hinder the reasons for more young people to join. However, the rapid development of the world of technology, even if Huang Mingguo is about to run four programmers, emerging technologies will continue to give them a sense of crisis and attractiveness. So in June of this year, he chose to leave work for 8 years BAT, to the outside world to see. In his own words, "I want to make a fight before the age of 40. "
However, the interview process is not smooth, the work background and qualifications are exceptional in Huang Mingguo 100offer just received the invitation letter 5 interview, received 2, one of the companies in the interview after his technique is too old to reject him, this brings a blow to have been on the technical strength their more confident. But in the end he succeeded in the entry of a start-up company, do data mining and machine learning related work, led the team of about 10 people, to a younger than their own superiors. The pace of work from BAT in the seven or eight day of work, became a night after work, after 10, sometimes the weekend will work overtime at home.
Last week, Huang Mingguo from the busy time to see us, this year, 38 years old, he looked tired, the conversation can also feel the tension of the state of mind. "Just a few months into the day, the work is full. He said with a smile, "there are some languages and techniques that have not been exposed to previous work, such as Scala and machine learning, and are now learning. "
In addition to these? Do you have any other work to deal with? I asked.
"Some. Now the work is mainly in the four part: write code, management team, do the work of data mining, machine learning. "
"It sounds a bit complicated. Have you ever mentioned to your boss that you want to focus on a particular piece of work, such as management? "
Huang Mingguo hesitated for a moment and said: "we are actually doing, many are in the exploratory stage, we have not enough experience, inevitably on the pit, these pits delayed the progress of the project, but also one of the leading factors we work overtime. Fortunately, however, we would like to discuss problems with the discussion, looking for solutions, although tired at this stage, but also a lot of growth. "
When the word "growth" emerged from the mouth of a nearly 40 year old programmer with nearly 10 years of work experience, it was a bit of a trance. Although the work background is glamorous, but undoubtedly Huang Mingguo have a sense of crisis, he knew that technology is a need to continue to learn the work,